Life cycle of an information system: phases and components

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Knowing the life cycle of an information system is necessary since it is an essential corporate asset, both in terms of the benefits they provide and the investment it requires.

Organizations must plan for the long term when investing in information systems and services to ensure they will support business initiatives.. At the same time, the system must guarantee them the ability to respond to emerging opportunities.

What are the essential applications? What are the project priorities? What phases does the life cycle of an information system have? These are some of the questions that must be answered to be sure that it will be make the most of the potential of such a relevant and differentiating business asset.



Life cycle of an information system: phases

In the life cycle of an information system Seven phases can be distinguished. It's about The next:

  1. Planning phase. In this phase, the design and subsequent implementation of the system is prepared.. It is necessary to define the scope of the project, justify it and choose a methodology for its development. It is also necessary to associate the different activities with time frames and designate roles and responsibilities..
  2. Analysis phase. Once the project team decides on a certain development methodology, the second stage in the life cycle of an information system begins. It is the one that has to do with the analysis and where it is sought to specify a series of requirements, which are the ones that will govern the new system or the changes to be made in the old one, if the project seeks to update it.
  3. Design phase. In this stage, the project team will need to determine how the new information system will meet the applicable requirements. It is because of that, at this point in the life cycle of an information system, it is convenient to identify possible solutions, evaluate them and choose the most appropriate.. This will be the most effective, the most profitable or the least complex. After completing these tasks, it will be necessary to continue making the technological selection of software and hardware, developing the specifications for the different applications and obtaining management approval to proceed with the implementation of the new system.
  4. Development phase. Software development marks a before and after in the life of the system and also means the start of production. Change is a constant during this stage, in which it is usually advisable to focus on the education and training of users and the technical team.
  5. Integration phase and trial period. The objective of this stage is to verify that the proposed design meets the established commercial requirements.. It may be necessary to repeat the tests as many times as necessary to avoid errors and, in fact, it is desirable that the end user agrees with the result. Finally, this stage concludes with the verification and validation, Help ensure successful program completion.
  6. Implementation phase. At this stage in the life cycle of an information system, the chosen hardware and software must be installed., create corresponding applications, try them, create relevant documentation and train users. Data conversion is important at this stage, where work is already beginning on the new system.
  7. Maintenance phase. This stage of the life cycle of an information system is related to day-to-day operations. It usually consists of making the necessary adjustments to improve performance and correct any problems that may arise. Once the implementation stage is complete, a period of supervised operation is usually opened, during which maintenance activities take on special importance, focusing on making backups, support users, solve faults, optimize the system for security or speed related issues and review software to ensure alignment with business objectives.


Components of an information system

The information system is an integrated set of components that organizations need to collect, store and process data, as well as to provide information, knowledge and digital products. Companies rely on information systems to carry out and manage your operations, interact with your customers and suppliers and compete in the market.

There are many different types of information systems, each of which has a specific purpose. Among them, three large blocks stand out:

  1. Operational support and business systems.
  2. Support for knowledge work.
    1. Professional support systems
    2. Collaboration systems
    3. Knowledge management systems
  3. Management support
    1. Management reporting systems
    2. Decision support systems and business intelligence.
    3. Executive information systems

Despite the differences that may exist between companies, What is common to all are the 7 stages of the life cycle of an information system already mentioned, and its components, what are five:

  1. Hardware
  2. software
  3. Telecommunications
  4. Databases and data warehouses.
  5. Human resources and procedures.

In practice, information systems are used, for instance, to manage cross-organizational supply chains and e-marketplaces. They can be used to process financial accounts, manage human resources and reach potential customers with online promotions. Many large companies rely entirely on information systems. Amazon, Facebook or eBay would be just a few examples.

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